Caucasian – Rugs are woven in the South-eastern region of Europe known as the Caucasus Region. Also, contain the Caucasus Mountain Range. Rugs woven in this area include rugs from Turkey, Northern Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgian.
Heriz– Rugs are woven from an area in Northern Iran known as Heris. These rugs are very popular, normally include a large medallion and an overall geometric feel. Fun Fact: Part of the reason for the toughness of Heriz carpets is that Mount Sabalan sits on a major deposit of copper. Traces of copper in the drinking water of sheep produces high-quality wool that is far more resilient than wool from other areas.
Serapi – A term used to describe an older Heriz, typically woven before or around 1910. Around this time as westerners started to influence the rug market in Iran, the Heriz rugs were distinctly changed in regards to their overall design, colors, and weave.
Persian – Rugs are woven in Iran. Prior to about 1930, the Iranian Empire was largely referred to as the Persian Empire. Therefore, Persian rugs are specifically rugs woven in Persia (Iran)
Oriental – A very broad term used to describe hand-piled/woven as well as flat-woven rugs woven from Egypt all the way to China. This includes Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Caucasus region, Pakistan, India, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Tibet, and a number of other smaller regions within the broader area that was creating rugs by hand on a loom.